Solar Energy: Grid vs Battery Storage

As solar power—both giant farms and small rooftop installations—enjoys tremendous growth across the U.S., there’s been pushback from big utility companies. They’ve campaigned to end net metering, in which solar panel owners can return unneeded power they’ve generated to the grid for credit, and to add fees to their bills, calling homeowners and small businesses […]

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Bi-directional Inverters are Reshaping Energy Storage Projects around the World

Converting DC to AC power has been a common part of the mix for renewable energy storage for decades. Renewables like wind and solar generate DC electricity and provide power to/from the grid through the use of unidirectional inverters. But renewable generation is trending away from the model of selling power only to the nearest […]

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Battery Based Energy Trading: Next Step After Reverse Metering?

The combination of battery-based energy storage and solar power already has some electric utilities worried. They believe consumers’ ability to store energy harvested by home solar arrays for later use could be a threat to their business model. Given that, they’re probably not going to like this latest development in energy-storage economics. Consumers with home […]

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The week of Thanksgiving in the United States is traditional a time to recount the things for which we should give thanks. From the standpoint of the world economy certainly close to the top of the thanks list this year should be the price of crude oil, which closed last Wednesday at $43.04 per barrel, down from a […]

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Power for Wearable Electronics

Battery power for Wearable Technology for both personal and business use.


Thin, small and lightweight – these are the physical requirements of wearable devices and the reason why the main constraint in wearable technology today is battery life. Conventional batteries that fit the bill, such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) coin cells, may be fine for sensors and other very low power wearable devices, but they struggle to keep up with the demands of more capable wearables such as fitness bands and smartwatches. Most of the smartwatches that are currently available have a battery life measured in days, for example. Extending the battery life is critical for these types of devices to gain market acceptance and for the wearables market to achieve the huge projection of 380 million units in use worldwide by 2018. Energy harvesting, wireless charging, battery management, power management, and low power solutions are all possible considerations to extend the battery life of a wearable design. RPE features some of the latest products available relating to these areas, to help designers of wearable devices create good power solutions as well as make the most of their power budgets.


Today’s wearable devices can be classified into two major types, based on their average power consumption. The first category includes devices such as smart watches that have displays, sensors, and always on radios that consume a lot of power. These devices typically have a battery with a few hundred mAh capacity on board. For example, the recently announced Samsung Galaxy Gear comes with a 315 mAh rechargeable battery and needs to be recharged almost daily [1]. The high-power consumption of the display, processor, and radio makes the time between recharges quite small. Given a daily recharge rate, the device’s average current consumption can be deduced to be ~13 mA. To extend battery life of wearable electronic devices, two things must be considered. First is to augment the energy available from the battery with harvested power from ambient light or body heat. For a 2 cm2 solar cell incorporated as part of the wearable device, it is possible to get an average of 1 mA of charge current into the battery when the device is worn outdoors. This would extend the battery life by seven percent for constant outdoor use. However, while used indoors, the harvested power falls off drastically, making use of solar harvesting impractical. Considering the device’s high-power consumption, using the energy harvested from body heat is not significant enough to cause a difference in battery life. The second way to improve battery life is to decrease the power consumed by the display, radio and the multitude of sensors within the device. The different smart watches available in the market today play with the features they provide to improve battery life. Once the features are set, the other key knob to increase battery life is to increase the system’s power train efficiency. Given that the different load circuits within the system (such as the microcontroller, radio, sensors, analog front-ends) are driven from a voltage supply that is different from the battery voltage, each of these requires its dedicated DC/DC converter bringing with it associated losses. Improving the efficiency of these converters provides a direct increase in the battery life time. Switch-mode inductor-based DC/DC converters are the preferred choice owing to their superior efficiency compared to linear regulators. However, because of their cost and area penalties, it is not possible to use a dedicated inductor-based switching regulator for each rail. Approaches such as multirail DC/DC converters with inductor-sharing need to be explored. Switched-capacitor DC/DC converters with fully integrated capacitors also should be considered as alternatives to linear regulators to improve efficiency and thus battery life.


The other popular class of wearable devices are primarily applicable to the medical industry and includes patches and fitness straps worn to monitor and report vital bodily signals. For aesthetic and convenience reasons, these patches need to be extremely thin, which limits the amount of energy storage capacity on board. In these devices the patch periodically monitors the vital signs and radios these stats to a central hub. Since the device needs to sense and transmit information a few tens of milliseconds every few seconds, aggressive duty cycling is employed within these systems. This brings down the overall power consumed to less than 100 µW, thereby achieving longer battery life time with smaller batteries. Battery lifetime can be further improved, or in some cases extended indefinitely, by using energy harvesting. Consider the earlier example of embedding a 2 cm2 solar cell on the device. In this case, even when used indoors, the harvested power of a few tens of µW is significant enough to have a major impact on the battery life. Wearing the device outdoors brings a 50-hour improvement in battery life for every one hour the device is exposed to bright sunlight. Even while the average power available from the harvester may be higher than the average device power, it may not be viable to completely replace the battery in certain applications. This is due to the limited amount of secondary energy storage allowable. In these types of systems, a small primary battery can be used to support the application during periods of dark time. The majority of the power is drawn from the harvester as the primary battery supplements the system during extended periods of low harvester input. This type of a system is used to extract the energy from the attached harvester and charge the secondary storage element. Only the essential pins of the IC are shown to aid the description. The IC automatically determines if there is enough energy in the rechargeable storage to power the end system from the harvested path by bringing the VB_SEC_ON pin low. During periods of low-energy harvesting input, the system shifts to the primary battery path by bringing the VB_PRI_ON signal low. The IC’s ability to autonomously transition between the primary battery and the harvesting source enables a smooth operation of the wearable device with enhanced battery life time. A solar or thermal harvesting element can be connected to the input of the IC to charge the secondary storage, as long as the voltage output by the harvester is greater than 120 mV. The system constraints and the availability of harvested power dictate the sizes of the primary and secondary storage. Using this scheme allows the user to have a tiny primary battery, a small solar cell, and reasonable secondary storage capacity (using a supercapacitor or thin-film rechargeable storage) to meet the energy needs of the wearable device. In certain applications where the harvested power is available for extended duration, the secondary storage can be made quite small and the primary battery can be eliminated altogether.


The ultimate goal for wearables would be to enable continuous monitoring. That means finding a way to power the device without ever having to take it off for recharging or to change the battery. The two obvious options to enable this are energy harvesting and wireless charging. For energy harvesting, the most likely candidates are photovoltaics and harvesting stray RF signals. Vibrational harvesting and thermoelectric generation are also possible but the frequency of human motion and limited temperature differentials around the body mean they have very limited potential. Some manufacturers have already started exploring the role of energy harvesting in wearables – such as the collaboration between Misfit and Swarovski, which has produced solar-powered fitness tracking jewelry. However, given the increasing demands we are placing on wearables, it seems unlikely that harvesting could ever be the sole power source for an always-on device. Rather, harvesting could become a secondary power source, helping to extend the lifetime of a primary battery.Wireless charging offers more potential as a primary power source. Given the need to keep the wearable on the body, the most promising option is loosely coupled wireless charging where RF signals deliver power to a number of separate devices within an extended area – similar to the way Wi-Fi systems wirelessly connect multiple devices to the internet. Multiple firms have recently demonstrated a first proof-of-concept for such a system with a charging radius of up to 10 meters.

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